Thursday, July 30, 2015

The Cherenkov’s Radiation in Cosmos, And Vedat Shehu’s Cosmic Core Kernel

My comment to:

       If we speak on radiation, surely we understand it as wave-corpuscular flux, and we can have better notion for it when we know its origin. So, even the beta radiation emitting certain light (named Cerenkov radiation), which is expressed as a blue glow, when crosses the transparent medium of gases, water and some crystals. Such glowing light is seen in nuclear reactors in water; and in the blue giant stars of Andromeda galaxy, which are covered with icy objects similar to our Kuiperoids in outer part of planetary disc. Cherenkov radiation is accompanied even supernova explosion. It means that through this event a similar matter transformation occurs as in transformation of atom nuclei of radioactive isotopes. Surely, in supernova event does not explode chemical elements in their atom or molecular state, but a certain ultradense matter shape of particle and ultra-particles, which are reshaped and form core of the newly born stars and newly born planet. Their cores are constructed with transformable ultradense core kernel inside, and their plasma outside and chemical elements and their bonds outside. Conclusively, the Earth’s core is a cosmic energetic object inside its stony (silicate) shell, while the Sun remained a gigantic earth-like core in bare state as a star.
       Vedat Shehu,
Engineer geologist, Doctor, Professor

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Sunday, February 1, 2015

The Earth core, a sun-like star in miniature.

      - Essence of “The Earth Growth and Development” from core kernel transformation -
                                            - By   Vedat Shehu  -

                                                                                   The Earth’s Essence is its energetic core, while
                                                                               core essence is its transformable kernel”
                                                                                                                                   Vedat Shehu

             Is the core, not only the central part, but even the most essential energetic part of the Earth, the  vital part of this completed PLANETARY sample of the cosmic matter transformation? And if yes, what kind of cosmic matter is transformed inside the core causing Earth’s vivacity? – Along the following lines is my answer.

Kernel of the Earth’s core -  A nut, as almond, is a natural core (pit) with its kernel inside. Similar to almond nut is the core (pit) of a peach fruit, while the pulp is covered by the peel. Just the kernel of the peach core is essence, seed, containing the embryo of the growing process of the flowering trees. Naturally, the fruit core-kernel is a specific kind of organic matter, which results from previous kinds of matter interaction and transformation, and simultaneously it does inherit the property and trend of matter interaction and transformation. Concretely, the kernel of the peach’s core is built by a certain kind of vital bioactive molecular bounds. It makes the core the essential part of the fruit, because, through interaction and transformations it does generate the biogenic molecular bounds for the embryo sprouting and seedling growth up to the tree. Similarly with property of matter transformation, the core of the Earth contains its kernel. Kernel of the earth core is built by certain, pre-atom-molecular shape of matter. So core-kernel is the essential part of the core, and makes the core the essential part of the Earth. Hence, I formulated the essential meaning of my theory, plainly so:  What would one told about the peach pit (core), if we would know only its rind and a bit from its pulp? . . . ., then one might even say that our planet did not make the core, but rather, the core’s kernel makes the earth, our dynamic Earth”.     
         If it is so, step by step we can transit this problem from the particular to the general, rather from the earth geo-dynamic processes to the Sun’s energy; from global tectonics to the cosmic matter transformation and earth core origin; furthermore from the Earth’s core dynamism to beyond the Bing Bang’s cosmos of the expanding sky, and beyond geocentrism of the observable universe. But in these lines we stop only to argue why the source of earth dynamism is inside the core. Then, proceeding so, we must investigate the core specific center-spherical structure, which has to demonstrate that earth energetic source works inside it.
Earth’s core dynamic structure: In this brief passage, I am trying to bring in evidence the essence of my theory presented in my book “The Growing and Developing Earth” (1988, 2004, 2005, and 2009). There in my theory, I review the observed facts about Earth, which are interpreted by the fundamental hypotheses of the Earth and cosmic Earth’s energetic  ones, as well. Almost all these interpretations are in conformity with the standard theory of the earth core inactivity. In contrary, in my theory is argued that the core hides inside oneself the source of Earth dynamism.
        The global geological theories, regardless of their trends, do not belong inclusively to the Earth’s problems, because, interfacing with the Earth’s energy, they are related directly to the earth origin, and so they do link up with cosmological problems of how the calm gaseous-dusty cloud has been turned into a dynamic nebula of the solar system, and how our planet ceaselessly generates the magnetism, heat and the geodynamic phenomena, since its formation as an agglomerate body about 4.55- 4.6 billion years ago. So, I have concluded, the development of Earth, as a planet, is done through the transformation mechanism that operates within its core. Here in this concise passage, I am trying to explane the essence of  this specific transformation. In order to create a real concept of earth dynamism, let’s examine the detailed structure of the core here in the figure 1.

Fig. 1. Dynamism of the Earth’s Core: Core’s varied concentric spherical structure points to the source of Earth’s dynamism, core kernel positioned just, somewhere at the contacting belt of the both cores. Core’s spherical layers standardized by letters G, F, E, D’’, D; here by respective marks: G, solid inner core  and its innermost core (intensified dense dots); F, inner transitory layer/geosphere (blanks with fine dots); Probable indiscernible core kernel (circular interrupted line), E, outer melted core (bend arrows outward and inward of core kernel); D’’, outer transitory layer/geosphere (blanks with fine dots); D, solid mantle i.e., core’s silicate cover (intensified dense dots). (Author VSh).

         It is a scanner, which is taken through the studies of the earthquake waves by geophysicists. An attentive scrutiny of this scanner enabled me to penetrate beyond this, apparently, static spherocentric structure, and I have set the eye on the unregistered, undetected and undistinguished the mechanism of processes causing the dynamism of this structure. An important phenomenon discovered by the geophysicists is that the full rotation (in 24 ours) of the inner core is done for about one twelfth of a second faster than full rotation of the outer core and the whole Earth. This is one of the phenomena, impossible to be captured by the scanning, but it points to the core dynamism. Let’s observe in the figure, the core dynamism is demonstratively expressed by the dominant position of the melted outer core within two rigid geo-spheres, inside the mantle’s silicate covering, and outside the solid inner core. Furthermore, it is reinforced by the fact that the boundary of the outer core to each solid geo-sphere is built by a narrow transition geo-spherical zone (layer), respectively D” and F composed with mixed material; melted and solid one. These layers point to gradual transition of melted matter toward both solid geo-spheres, mantle and inner core. Then, if this solidifying mass of outer core would have not constantly generated, then the entire core would have stiffened long ago. So, such function of core structure does directly repudiate a plain precipitation of the Fe-Ni mass, and inactivity of the core. Such way, core dynamism is clearly confirmed, surely, through certain matter transformation. Of course, even energy generation from radioactive disintegration is impossible in the core, there runs a cosmic process.

Earth core, the energy source of the geodynamic processes: The fact, that the continents were separated and distanced themselves from each other and between them is formed a new oceanic crust (figure 2), points to global geodynamic processes that are not only geologic processes: volcanoes, earthquakes and tectonic movements, but even the processes of the Earth’s physical fields (gravitational, geothermal, geomagnetic). Both these processes indicate to the whole Earth growth, just from inside. Similar processes, which did form basaltic crusts of the oceans, have run and formed basaltic crust of the Moon’s seas, and a similar crust in other planets and planetoids. Further more dominant part of meteors, asteroids, meteorites and grain of gas-dusty cloud and cosmic grains around of some stars are composed from basaltic minerals (of dominant dark Fe-Mg silicates), as well, while the continents are from bright (Ca,Na, K) silicates and bright silicon (SiO2)

Figure 2. A schematic profile across the Atlantic points to Ocean crust growth as evidence of the Earth's growth. Continental slices (1 ), being previously in contact (at smaller globe (Below B) , have successively gone apart from the mid-oceanic rift, and the space left behind was filled simultaneously with newly generated oceanic crust of the consecutive belts (2 up to 8) symmetrically shifted from the central rift. It means that the oceanic crust generation is evidence of the growing earth process.
B. Initial moment of the continental split at small Earth, and Atlantic crust formation, the obvious growing process caused by core kernel transformation positioned as ultrathin ultradense geosphere between outer melted core and inner solid core (fig. 6) (Author)

             Presence of rock components (minerals) together with fluid molecules points directly to their common origin, both rocky minerals and gaseous molecules originate from the same source; the source of nucleosynthesis. The nucleosynthesis is not something in itself, it is one side of the matter transformation in atom-molecular shape, and another side of matter transformation is the release of the free particles and sub-particles of radiate fluxes, particularly of the physical fields. Conclusively, gradual formation of the new oceanic crust between continental slabs (figure 2) is result of certain permanent transforming process generating atom molecular matter and radiating fluxes.

Earth core as a sun-like star in miniature: The cosmos is filled with high energy sources ranging from all kinds of the stars including, among them, the Sun’s like stars, which are energetic objects of matter transformation inside of the galaxy’s structure. Probably, even the source of earth’s dynamism has to range to this astrophysical line, as well. This concept unifies the cause of the Earth’s dynamism with that of the Earth’s growth, and expresses the essence of my geotheory of Cosmic matter transformation inside the core, which was published many times under different titles as book and articles since 1988 in Albanian language and since 2004 in English too. Under the title of this laconic passage, I aim to emphasize that the pivot and the key of this theory is just a mechanism within the earth core, where the universal transformation of cosmic matter occurs, likely in the stars, but differently of the standard theory. 
         By many scholars, the cause of Earth Expansion has been sought in the Earth's core, but, no one of them did try to identify it as the specific mechanism of the earth energy and expansion. In fact, the core, neither as the whole, nor separately as outer or inner one, could act as an expansion mechanism, because of its geocentric heterogeneous structure, as it is seen in the figure. Thus, it became necessary to develop a new theory as a very scientific way of Earth’s dynamism and its growing process. It may become, by very simple modification, shifting source of the energy from the mantle to the core. The only such mechanism inside the core could be the cause for the global tectonics’ phenomena and for growing Earth process, as well
        In particular, differentiation of the structure and behavior of the inner core shows that something, as an elusive screen separates both cores, and runs as an energetic source. Energy of this source holds the outer core in its melted state, while the intensity of its influence is gradually weakened to both sides, it falls briefly inwards to the solid inner core, and slowly outwards to the mantle. 
         Reasoning that energy is not something in itself but it is released from the matter transformation, then, we must seek what kind of matter is transformed. According to the modern concept of the unity of matter and energy in physics, a certain uncommon kind of matter must be transformed inside the core, and it does release  energy by certain nucleosynthesis. Hence, could be drawn the conclusion, quite naturally, that matter of this mechanism should be of ultradense shape, and through its transformation causes earth dynamism and its growth, just, it acts as the Earth's core kernel. This ultradense matter is probably similar to the matter of an atom nucleus or quark-neutron star. This kernel is just the cause of differences between the two cores. Thus, it belongs to be positioned somewhere at the periphery of the outer core, close to the contact with the transitory layer to the inner core.
        The core of the Earth has been just one of many extraordinary planetary cores which revolved around a supergiant core, i.e., the Sun, at the infant stage of the solar system formed from the nebula. Further, as the other cores, the core of the Earth was a source of energy, did release particles, sub-particles, radiation and plasma, Over time, the predominant mass of the newly formed plasma was reconstructed in atom-molecular shape, which being cooled did form silicate bounds which should form the rigid mass that should wrap the core. Thus began the process of formation and growth of the Earth by the energetic core kernel transformation. Into this process was attracted even the nebula’s material within the radius of influence of the gravity. Further, through the growing process, the earth mass did remain nearly constant, because, it  is almost the same mass of particles and sub-particles released from the ultradense shape of core kernel, which in the new structure of chemical elements, does occupy an extraordinarily greater volume than previously, in ultradense state.
        Naturally, as with any energy source, the radiation and newly released atom-molecular mass in melted state are shifted towards two ways.
        Firstly, the dominant part of newly formed mass, which is shifted outward, crosses the melted outer core and through the transitory spherocentric layer is gradually solidifies at the bottom of the mantle, and then, remained mass, accompanied by radiation is flowing outward forming plume structures, and is spread even laterally through the mantle. Then, the tensions of the mantle growth cause the break of the brittle lithosphere and push the juvenile magma, through inherited ways, to intrude further into the more rigid upper mantle and lithosphere, where might create gravitate disequilibrium and, by replacing it, earthquake shock occurs, and its last portion attains the surface as volcanic lava, which fulfill immediately responding gap which would be created by the moving away of the lithosphere slices (plates), because of the earth growing process.
        Secondly, a little heavier fragment of newly formed chemical elements (probably by dominant Fe-Ni elements), with a fragmentary flux of the radiation is moving inward crossing a very narrow melted layer, included to outer core and through transitory zone, supplies the inner core, and becomes the cause of its growth, its solid state, its surface specific morphology and its further geocentric structure.
       The presence of this geospheric ultradense dynamic screen does separate the earth into two globes, which are rotating differently around the same axis; factually the inner core rotates faster less than half a grade a year.
      By such transformation process the entire Earth is growing, while the outer melted core stays in dynamic equilibrium or is very slowly grown. The process might be influenced even by some unknown, probably outer excitant, which, similarly with electromagnetic (light) radiation in plant growth, does not influence in the Earth’s mass addition.

The Earth’s core and the Sun: The original nuclei with theirs ultradense kernels inside the planetary cloud, probably originated from a supernova explosion. So, the hypothesis of the origin of the solar system must be modified in respect to the core kernel mechanism of the growing and developing earth process.
         Thereby, the earth core presents a sun in miniature wrapped oneself up in silicate cover, while the Sun, as a star, remains a gigantic bare core. Just here in Fig.3    are seen certain analogy of the Sun’s activity and radiation with earth core dynamic structure. I have concluded that in Sun and in the Earth’s core, similar processes must run, differentiated from environments in stars and planets, but connected by their origin within the same nebula.
Further, seismic studies unequivocally determine that earthquake energy comes from Earth’s outer core and that the core activity and earthquake events are influenced by the Sun’s cycles. Also, there is an apparent correlation between earth seismicity and sunspot cycles implicating the Sun’s radiation in Earth dynamics .
        It is observed that earth magnetic field is disturbed by solar wind and also by earth seismic activity around the epicenter some hour before earthquake shock occurs.
Conclusively, if the core dynamism by its kernel transformation would be accepted as a working hypothesis, the respective effects would be of unusual importance related to orientation of research work for new discoveries. 
        One may discuss about probable of the matter shape of the core kernel, and about the way of its transformation, but not on the existence or nonexistence of this energetic focus. Let’s discuss about the existence of the core-kernel, and its probable function.
Figure 8 A views on temperatures of the Sun’s lower atmosphere layers (corona)

Here, in the figure is shown unaccepted difference between the temperatures in the photosphere, Sun’s surface (ca. 6,000 K) and  in the lowest corona (above one million) in the height of 5500 km. Such phenomenon points directly to earth core structure, where highest temperatures ought to be outward of the core kernel, but toward the solid mantle and inward, toward the solid inner core are falling, and the atom-molecular mass is  soon stiffened.  (Author)
Application: Beside the fact that it is a revolutionizing theory of world view about the origin and development of the earth globe in the solar system frame, and an orientation of research in the cosmos, it has even a practical importance about geological researches. Concretely, let’s consider an example of how it may be applied to a research problem:  there are two theories about the origin of hydrocarbons (oil and gases); the first, the biogenic theory explains their formation from fossilized micro-organisms, and the second, the abiogenic theory explains their formation by certain chemical reactions. The biogenic theory, of its side, cannot explain the presence of very large hydrocarbon resources in unusual depths under the surface and in some cosmic bodies. In spite of this, currently, the biogenic theory is still the dominant and standard theory, because the chemical reactions, by which the abiogenic way is reasoned, are now considered as less possible to have occurred in that way. But the abiogenic theory needs more explanation: The abiogenic formation of hydrocarbon molecular bonds most likely occurs as a result of the direct synthesis of the newly formed atoms of hydrogen and carbon through core kernel transformation, as other molecular bonds of chemical elements are similarly formed..
Newly complited, Boston February 2014

Note: Thus, in this passage of the Earth’s energetic core as a sun-like star in miniature is a laconic integration of the essence of my theory, based in core kernel transformation, which, under the title “Earth Expansion through Activity of the Earth Core-Kernel as an  active Cosmic  Object”  was presented in Erice Workshop (4 -9 October 2011) in Sicily and published in the respective volume of “Selected Contributions of the Interdisciplinary Workshop, “The Earth Expansion Evidence” – A Challenge for Geology, Geophysics and Astronomy;  Main Editor Giancarlo Scalera, Rome 2012.
While my respective book might be seen here:

     Vedat Shehu
(Professor, Doctor and Engineer geologist)
124 N. Main St. Sharon 02067 MA  USA
 Mail: Mob: 1- 774 258 452

Furthermore, here below is presented an artistic view on Earth’s core inside its silicate shall.

Figure 4. A simplified artistic presentation of Earth Core.  Here in figure (taken from web), is seen plain position of both earth cores the outer melted core (yellow) and the inner solid one (red). Just, the black circle between cores there in the figure is drawn there, where I have argued, the spherical position of the ultradense core kernel, somewhere at the inner boundary belt of the outer core with inner core.